Explain the law of supply and its exceptions Economics

If the cost of production increases along with the rise in the price of product, the sellers will not find it worthwhile to produce more and supply more. Therefore, the law of supply will be valid only if the cost of production remains constant. It implies that the factor prices such as wages, interest, rent etc., are also unchanged. The law of supply and demand outlines the interaction between a buyer and a seller of a resource.

assumption of law of supply

It indicates more supply of goods at the lower prices. The quantity supplied decreases to S2S2 due to a rise in the cost of production. Thus, changes in supply curve due to the factors other than price are shown by different curves. The quantity supplied is expressed on X-axis while price is measured on Y-axis. The law of supply can be illustrated through the supply schedule as shown in the above supply curve SS’. By plotting the various combinations of price and quantity supplied, we get different points S, M, N, Q, R and T.

Total utility (TU) and Marginal Utility (MU)

Supply curve can be of two types, individual supply curve and market supply curve. Individual supply curve is the graphical representation of individual supply schedule, whereas market supply curve is the representation of market supply schedule. The law of supply states that, other things remaining the same, the quantity supplied of a commodity is directly or positively related to its price.

The first assumption of law of demand is that the tastes and preferences of the consumer are same regardless… If a trader works to assumption of law of supply hit from one place to another place then he will sell his goods on low prices. In all the above situations this law will not apply.

To be more specific, this means that the equilibrium price for the goods at the market is $4.00. If the producer lowers the price below $4.00, an excess in demand would cause the buyers to want more pineapples than the fruit stand can sell. If the supplier raises the price above $4.00, an excess in supply would cause buyers to want fewer pineapples than the fruit stand can sell. If the fruit stand keeps the price of their pineapples at $4.00, then there is a balance between supply and demand which is good for both the buyers and the fruit stand. Rare articles – Rare, artistic and precious articles are also outside the scope of the law of supply.

assumption of law of supply

This phrase is used to cover the following assumptions on which the law is based. Various economists have extensively studied the behavior of sellers and producers and firms. As a result they arrived at a generalization of their https://1investing.in/ behavior called the Law of Supply. Production activities and supply of different goods very much depends upon the system of taxation. If heavy taxes are imposed on production of different goods then their supply my decrease.

Determinants/Factors of price Elasticity of supply

In this case, wages are regarded as the price of labor. It can be interpreted from the graph that as the wages of a worker increases, its quantity supplied that is working hours decreases, which is an exception to the law of supply. According to the law of supply, if the price of a product rises, then the supply of the product also rises and vice versa. However, there are certain conditions where the law of supply is not applicable. These conditions are known as exceptions to law of supply.

On the other hand concession in tax may help to increase supply at the same price. Supply of agricultural products usually changes with change in weather. When weather is suitable for agriculture then more output is obtained and therefore, supply of an agricultural goods increase otherwise decrease.

Assumptions of Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility

A supply curve is a representation of the relationship between the price of a good or service and the quantity supplied for a given period of time. In addition, the number of suppliers available, the level of competition, the state of technology, and the presence of government support or restriction will play important roles. For certain products like agricultural commodities, supply is also impacted by things like weather and crop yields. The law of supply says that a higher price will induce producers to supply a higher quantity to the market.

Here the wage rate has been regarded as the price of labour and the labour supply is determined in terms of Labour-Hours the worker is willing to work at a given wage rate. It has been observed that as wages increase, a worker might work for a lesser number of hours than before. In economically backward countries, production and supply cannot be increased with rise in price due to shortage of resources. Rare, artistic and precious articles are also outside the scope of law of supply. For example, supply of rare articles like painting of Mona Lisa cannot be increased, even if their prices are increased.

Economists have studied the behaviour of sellers, just as they have studied the behaviour of buyers. As a result of their observations, they have arrived at the law of supply. Law of supply states the direct relationship between price and quantity supplied, keeping other factors constant . Goods having relatively elastic supply means the quantity supplied is sensitive to the price. When producers can make the merchandises in a short time it usually has relatively elastic supply.

Similarly, if the price of the product decreases, the supplier would decrease the supply of the product in market as he/she would wait for rise in the price of the product in future. During a given period of time, it is assumed that the scale of production is held constant. If there is a changing scale of production the level of supply will change, irrespective of changes in the price of the product. In the figure above OX axis shows quantity of demand and OY axis shows price. SS1 line is the line of supply when the price of the commodity is OP then quantity of supply is OQ. “Other things remaining unchanged, the supply of a commodity rises i.e., expands with a rise in its price and falls i.e., contracts with a fall in its price.

Increase in number of firms raises the market supply. However, as the price starts falling, some firms which do not expect to earn any profits at a low price either stop the production or reduce it. It reduces the supply of the given commodity as the number of firms in the market decreases. In the given figure, price and quantity supplied are measured along the Y-axis and the X-axis respectively.

What is law of supply and its assumptions?

“Other things being constant, higher the price of a commodity, more is the quantity supplied and lower the price of a commodity less is the quantity supplied”. Capacity – If the number of factories producing the goods increase, the quantity supplied will increase, vice versa. We can easily find adequate metaphor even in the university to understand the concept of Law of Supply.

Productive workers – If the firm employs more well-educated workers, the productivity of the workers will increase and therefore the quantity supplied will naturally increase, vice versa. In this case it does not move along the supply curve but the whole supply curve shifts to either left or right. This fundamentally happens because of any non-price determinants. While stating the law of supply, the phrase ‘keeping other factors constant’ or ‘ceterus paribus’ are used.

It is because, for the perishable goods, sellers cannot wait for a long time and if these types of goods remain unsold, then they will face only loss. It is also assumed that the taxation policy of government does not change. The increase in taxes effects the investment and production and supply of goods decreases. The supply of a commodity depends on the natural environment. The supply of agricultural product is affected adversely by weather, natural calamities like flood, cyclone etc. On the other hand adequate rainfall and good weather etc. increase supply.

There are five types of supply—market supply, short-term supply, long-term supply, joint supply, and composite supply. Meanwhile, there are two types of supply curves—individual supply curves and market supply curves. Individual supply curves graph the individual supply schedule, while market supply curves represent the market supply schedule. It is observed that the producer seller sells less at low price. With rising prices viz 13, 14, 15 the quantity of wheat rises from 30 to 40 kilograms.

In economics supply and demand are two basic concepts and backbone of market economy. In terms of economics supply means “an amount of a commodity or service which sellers are willing and able to sell at a given price during a given period of time”. ” If the other factors remains constant then the supply of commodity increase with increase in its price and vice versa.”

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